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Carl is interested in the way chromatin is bundled up inside the cell nucleus and how that affects its function. He wants to know how chromatin shapes the way genes work. Nucleosomes, around which DNA wraps, restrict access to genes. Carl’s team are exploring how genes are dynamically unmasked or mobilized by ATP-driven, multi-protein chromatin ‘remodeling’ enzymes. How does this affect the activity of genes and what are the consequences for the whole organism? Recently, Carl’s team has also begun to investigate histones that play a role in chromosome separation during cell division.